Because the growth in smartphone use has made data demand soar, mobile networks demand that companies like Apple, Facebook, and Google pay for part of the network upgrades. The call from major operators, including Telecom Italia, France Telecom (Orange), and Vodafone, would require content providers to pay fees in proportion to the use of their products.
It will probably be fought by the companies whose data content is encouraging customers to buy smartphones. These companies will counter that the mobile networks are attempting to charge at both sides of the connection. The demands go against the principle of net neutrality, which states that companies which provide connectivity to end users should not charge providers for content transferred through their networks.