Italy, or more precisely the Italian Republic, is a sovereign nation located in south central Europe. In the north Italy has borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. In the south Italy is surrounded by water and is the Italian Peninsula with the Islands of Sicily and Sardinia, which also are the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Within Italy itself are several independent states known as enclaves within the country of Italy. There are San Marino, Vatican City, and Campione d’Italia, which as an Italian exclave found within the state of Switzerland.
Italy’s land mass covers 301,338 square kilometers, has a moderate, temperate climate, with over 60 million people living within its borders. Ranking sixth for population within Europe, Italy is the 23rd most populous country in the entire world.
The capital of Italy is Rome, which was the seat of the great Roman Empire of ancient times, and considered by historians to be the capital of western civilization.